Gus Klados (Keynote)
45 Years Around the World with TBMs!
Director of Tunnels - Kuala Lumpur MRT
9.05am – 9.45am: Gus Klados, Kuala Lumpur MRT Tunnelling Director: 45 years of managing tunnelling risk on three continents
The presenter will demonstrate that risk management has existed and has been performed well before it became a “cottage industry” in tunnelling. He describes the way his tunnelling knowledge was accumulated starting from the lectures by Prof. Karl Széchy, the author of the Art of Tunnelling, the textbook used in the seventies in the Budapest Technical University which became the “bible” of tunnellers worldwide. Gus’ international carrier started with a short stint in Belgrade on the Vraćar Tunnel and continued in Calcutta in building all the bored tunnels on the first line of Calcutta Metro. He was helped by the fame of the Channel Tunnel Project, where managing the inherent risks of mechanised tunnelling under the sea was a daily staple for all agents and managers. Gus moved to TCTA-20 of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, where the biggest risk was sudden water inflow through dolerite dykes intersecting the sedimentary rocks. Next came the Lines 2 & 3 of the Athens Metro where the archaeological risks were misunderstood and the impact of tectonised peridotite and the Athenian shiest on large diameter, open TBM tunnelling was underestimated. On the T-05 Contract of the Deep Tunnel Sewer System in Singapore risk management was complicated by the extreme variability of the level of interface of granite and its residual soil, where tunnelling was performed with the added difficulty of two, wrongly specified EPBMs. A further – unforeseen – risk materialised when Gus’ employer, Philipp Holzmann went into receivership. On the SMART Tunnel in Kuala Lumpur, the risk of tunnelling in a city in karstic limestone to build a large diameter tunnel with 1D cover had to be mitigated. After a short stint in New-Delhi, Gus – after 28 years of absence – moved back to Hungary to manage the mostly contractual risks of the M4 line of Budapest Metro. The experience of tunnelling in karst came handy in preparing for the KVMRT Line 1 in Kuala Lumpur, resulting in the development and successful usage of the Variable Density Slurry TBMs as a prime risk mitigation measure. The refurbished VD TBMs are now in the process of being launched for Line 2, the SSP Line.